Location Medical Service Service Mode
Fundus Diseases

Types of Fundus Diseases

  • Vitreous Opacity/muscae volitantes


1. Central Serous Chorioretinopathy:

Cause: It still remains unknown. The inducing factors could be lack of sleep, stressfulness and mood swing. The patient has a favorable prognosis and is more likely to relapse.

Treatment: Eliminate inducing factors, drug injection combined with laser photocoagulation should be performed when needed.

2. Age-related Macular Degeneration: It can be categorized as two forms of dry macular and wet macular

Causes: The exact etiology remains unknown. The inducing factors may be connected to genetic factors, environmental impact, chronic retinalphotopathy, malnutrition and dysmetabolism.

Treatment: 1.  No effective treatment for dry macular.

      2.  For the wet macular, photodynamic therapy (PDT), traspupillary thermotherapy (TTT) and anti-VEGF drug injectionare the most effective treatments.

3. Myopic Macular Degeneration

Causes:    High myopia > -6.00D

Treatment:      Anti-VEGF injection, photodynamic therapy (PDT) and traspupillary thermotherapy (TTT).

4. Macular Hole

Causes: The causes of  idiopathic macular hole are unknown yet; in addition, ocular contusion and long-term cystoid macular degeneration and cracks may evolve into macular hole.

Treatment: Based on patients’ conditions, the therapeutic methods could be follow-up observation, laser photocoagulation and internal limiting membrane peeling.


  • Retinopathy: Retinal detachment is the most common form of retinopathy

Causes: High myopia, aphakic eye, retinal lattice degeneration and patients who have the history of ocular trauma are more likely to suffer from retinopathy.

Treatment: Based on patients’ condition, Scleral buckling with or without cryotherapy/ laser photocoagulation and vitrectomy are the most effective treatments. 


  • Diabetic Retinopathy:

Causes: The deterioration of microangiopathy caused by hyperglycemia will lead to retinopathy and retinal dysfunction. Long-term hyperglycemia is a decisive factor of this disease. Patients, at any age, with disease course of 10 years or above, are more likely to suffer from it.

Treatment: Strict glucose control, treatment of hypertension and hyperlipidemia, periodic fundus examination, and fundus fluorescein angiography when necessary. Drugs to improve circulation are applied as aid therapy. In the early stage, laser photocoagulation would be the appropriate therapy. While in the late stage, vitrectomy is preferred.

  • Advantages on diagnosis and doctor resources

AIER Eye Hospital Group has clinical experiences in tackling complex fundus oculi diseases. Its diagnosis and treatment capability have met the international standard of its kind. AIER currently has over 200 fundus disease specialists, and the core technical team is consisting of experts with extensive clinically experience in fundus diseases, which is the renowned domestic expert Prof. Tang Shibo, the President and doctoral supervisor of AIER School of Ophthalmology, Central South University, the President of AIER Eye Hospital Group.

Equipment advantages

AIER’s examination and surgical equipment has reached international advanced level.


Fundus disease departments of AIER hospitals under the AIER Group, especially of those in capital cities, are able to conduct professional clinical examinations on various fundus diseases, such asfluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, optical coherence tomography (OCT), perimetry, optical electrophysiological examination, anti-VEGF injection, triamcinolone acetonide, etc. Apart from conventional laser treatment for fundus diseases, they are also capable of conducting photodynamic therapy (PDT), traspupillary thermotherapy (TTT) and YAG laser ablation of vitreous for muscae volitantes. 

In addition to operation of conventional retina surgeries, the hospitals are able to conduct vitrectomy and retinal reattachment surgeries for complicated retinal detachments (such as retinal detachment with choroidal detachment, rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, recurrent retinal detachment, choroidal coloboma associated retinal detachment, pediatric and juvenile retinal detachments), and conduct cataract extraction and intraocular implantation combined with the extraction of intraocular foreign body, vitrectomy and retinal reattachment surgery, lamellar scleral resection and scleral fenestration for nanophthalmos with congenital choroidal effusion.


Advantages of Medical Examination Appointment

AIER eye hospitals work efficiently on examination appointment. Patients have an easy access to clinics where fundus experts are on duty and take large-scale examinations on the same day. With timely issuance of examination results, the diagnosis can be conducted by the same expert. Meanwhile, it’s difficult to achieve for other grade-3 public hospitals in China. 

When it comes to appointment for surgery, retinal detachment surgery is mostly available on the same day after the emergency treatment, which is hard to achieve for other hospitals. 


Advantages Compared to Other Hospitals